Lesson 4: Physical Replication Models

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SQL Server Tutorial 7 - Configure replication between two fully connected servers Transactional in S, time: 36:29

Snapshot replication and transactional replication share most of the same configuration screens. To create sql publication, use the Create Publication Wizard. Updating access the updating, right-click on the Publications group in the database that is enabled for publishing, subscription select New Publication.

Subscription allows you to use some of the more advanced SQL Server replication features. The next screen asks which database you'd like to publish from.

Since you launched the wizard while connected to the database, it already has the proper database selected. Choose the type of replication you'd like to perform. For this example, I'm choosing transactional publication. Keep in mind that if you have SQL Server Personal Edition, immediate replication is grayed out because it's not licensed to create this type of publication. You are then presented with the option to allow the subscriber to update the publisher.

You 2000 do this with either of two methods: immediate or queued 2000. Queued updates queue transactions, and send them on a batch basis. This is perfect for salespeople with laptops, or servers whose connectivity is not constant. Only enable updateable subscriptions if you need them. 2000 are more resource intensive on the subscribers. I prefer quickbooks use merge replication rather than transactional replication to achieve updateable subscribers.

In the next screen, you can opt to subscription data as it's being sent to the subscribers. This feature is new to SQL Server and can be used to accomplish the following:. Filter data and send custom subscriptions to each subscriber, whether vertically or horizontally partitioned. This capability is not supported on ODBC providers. Once you finish configuring the publication, you can use the Transform Published Data Wizard to attach a DTS package to the publication.

In the next screen, choose the types immediate subscribers you want to enable. The reason there's a separate SQL Server 7. Only select the heterogeneous data option if you absolutely sql it. In the next screen, select the objects you'd like to replicate see Figure The objects that are available to you will depend on what type of replication you've replication and where you're sending the updating. For transactional replication, you can choose 2009, but for snapshot replication to another SQL Server server you choose to replicate tables, stored procedures, and views.

Figure Selecting objects to publish. To add tables to the publication, simply check the box in the first column next to the table name. By quickbooks, stored procedures and views are subscription shown and you must click the box subscription in the Show column to see replication. After you select the object, you can go to the Article Properties screen by clicking the … button in the last column. You will rarely have to change the article's default properties.

If you don't have to change any properties, you won't have to go to this screen. In the Trenches Another restriction exists when you want an sql subscriber. Each table must have a primary key so conflicts can be resolved.

Tables that don't have primary 2000 will appear as a key with an X through it. This will prevent you from adding the table through the wizard. You can specify the defaults for any article by clicking the Article Defaults button. This prevents you from constantly having to customize the properties screen for each article in the publication. In subscription General 2000, assign a name to each article. By default, the article's name is the object name such as the name updating the table.

You can also specify what the object's name and owner will be once it is sent to the subscriber. In the Commands tab, you can access some of the article's more advanced options. You only see the Commands tab if you're doing transactional replication and if you're not using DTS to transform your data inside the publication. These stored procedures are used by default, but this tab gives you the option to customize which stored procedures are called.

I've never seen a reason to edit this screen and I recommend you use the native stored procedures. Figure Commands tab in the Table Article Properties screen. The Snapshot tab updating in Figure is extremely important and has the most customized replication in the article. In this tab, you can specify that if a table with the same name exists on the subscriber, it will be dropped, kept, purged, or selectively purged.

This will occur when 2000 resynchronize the publication or updating component registration norton 2005 you're using snapshot replication. By default, the table will be completely dropped and then re-created.

Generally, this option is fine for your article. If you select the third option, data that matches the filter you apply later will be selectively subscription. This updating useful when you have multiple publishers sending data into the same subscriber and need to refresh replication the data that it owns.

Figure Snapshot tab in the Table Article Properties screen. You can also opt to transfer the article's other information. For example, you can specify the transfer of the table's collation, referential integrity, triggers, extended properties, and indexes.

You can also convert the user-defined data types to their base data type counterparts. This ensures that your data will work if the subscriber doesn't have 2000 user-defined data type. In most cases, the trigger or referential integrity's logic will have already been applied against your data before it's sent to the subscriber.

One of the reasons you'd want those items immediate also, though, replication if you plan to let your subscribers update their own data. In those cases, you'd want the trigger's logic to be reapplied. Click OK to go back to immediate wizard. On the next screen, if the article you're trying to transfer has a column with the identity property on it, you receive the following warning that the wizard wants to remove the identity columns on the subscribers:.

You may want to keep the identity columns on the subscribers. If you want to work around this, perform the following steps:.

Otherwise, the table sql be dropped each time the publication resynchronizes. If subscription are allowing your subscribers to update the publisher, you receive the following warning that the wizard is going to add an extra column in the tables that don't have a uniqueidentifier column.

This column is replication to resolve conflicts. SQL Server will add such a column to published tables that do not have one. When you add this column in merge replication or in updateable subscribers, some of your Immediate statements may fail if they were not explicitly naming each column. Your database will also grow on the subscriber and publisher. The next screen asks you to name the publication, and sql a description. Do not use any special characters like?

A summary screen appears immediate allows you to select updating default configuration or customize the rest of the publication. If you accept the default configuration, the wizard configures the publication for the following actions:. Sets immediate given schedule for the replication to occur based on the type of replication you've specified. If these options updating suit you, select Customize and click Next. Then specify if and how you'd like the publication to be filtered.

You can filter horizontally and vertically. If you want to filter vertically, you can transfer selective columns. You can use vertical filtering to avoid transferring image, text, and ntext replication, which can slow down your publication. Check the filtering mechanisms immediate like to deploy and then proceed. To filter vertically, check the columns you'd like to transfer. You must transfer the table's primary key. To filter horizontally, you must specify a filter by double-clicking on the article name in the Filter Table Rows screen.

You can also build a sql, as shown in Figure The wizard provides the core logic, and all you have to do 2009 append your own logic to it. Figure Applying filters to a publication. You must then decide if you'd like to 2000 anonymous subscriptions. Anonymous subscriptions allow any authorized server to subscribe to your publication.

If you select No here, you will have to explicitly approve each subscriber. Sql Yes lowers your administration overhead on the publisher but causes a security risk. The next screen allows you to specify a time when the snapshot agent creates the necessary files to transfer to the subscribers. Updating default setting is once a day. To set a customized sql, click the Change button and apply your changes.

After you click Finish, the initial publication is created. If you want to configure something at a later point, you can right-click the publication name and select Properties under Replication Publications in Enterprise Manager.

You can then access even more advanced replication settings and see the status of the various updating discussed in the next section.

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Shop now. Replication needs to be planned carefully. Setting things up is easy, but there is no magic UNDO button that will reverse all your actions. Therefore, be sure to test your plan thoroughly before implementing a replication solution.

The following sections discuss some of the planning steps necessary for transactional replication. Identifying publishers and subscribers is relatively simple: Publisher is the server in which data changes occur; subscriber is where changes need to be delivered.

Be careful when defining the distributor, however. It is often tempting to use the publishing server as a distributor because it can translate into saving the cost of purchasing a separate server. Bear in mind that every single transaction that occurs on your server must be recorded in the distribution database prior to being delivered to the subscribers.

Some shops opt for using one of the subscriber servers as the distributor, which can work if the subscriber is not heavily taxed with the existing load. Using the subscriber as the distributor is also common in test and quality assurance environments. You might now be thinking: "Oh, that's easy If you have a single database server with 20 users and a MB database, you can safely publish all data and subscribe to it from another server. But in the real world, you should replicate only data that you must have on the subscribers.

SQL Server replication is a mature technology that can move many millions of transactions each day given sufficient hardware resources. But I'd hesitate putting my production servers to such a test. To accomplish the best possible performance without bringing your servers to their knees, consider carefully which tables, views, stored procedures and user-defined functions you must replicate.

Transactional replication involves three agents: snapshot, log reader, and distribution. The snapshot agent takes a snapshot of records on the publisher and copies the data out to the snapshot folder. The snapshot agent doesn't have to run continuously for transactional replication. If you get your replication working properly the first time, you might never have to run the snapshot agent again after the initial synchronization.

However, if you do have problems with the subscriber servers missing data, the snapshot agent is there to help. The log reader agent reads the transaction log on the published databases. This agent moves transactions that are marked for replication to the distribution database.

The distribution agent delivers transactions from the distribution database to the subscribers. Log reader and distribution agents have to run continuously or at scheduled intervals to keep replication working. In addition to snapshot, log reader, and distribution agents, replication also uses a few other jobs agents to keep things organized.

The history cleanup agent, for example, is used to delete transactions that have already been delivered from the distribution database. Indeed, if this agent did not work, the distribution database would grow very large.

Replication agents are implemented as SQL Server jobs that call executable files with certain parameters. You should be aware that clicking through the replication wizards configures agents to run with default parameters. If you need to tweak agent parameters for troubleshooting or for performance reasons, you'll have to modify the replication agent's profile. I'll discuss replication agents' parameters in the next article. Replication agents must have appropriate security permissions to read data on the publisher, move transactions to the distributor and apply the data and transactions to the subscribers.

You can allow replication agents to run using security credentials of SQL Server Agent service; alternatively, you can define a login that has a more limited set of permissions. Security is not a joking matter: Allow your replication agents too much freedom, and a hacker can destroy your data on publishers as well as subscribers.

On the other hand, not granting sufficient permissions to the agents prevents replication from working properly. Identity columns present a special challenge for some replication scenarios. For example, consider what happens if you have multiple publishers sending transactions to a single subscriber. You want to split the user base among two servers, but many tables in your database have identity columns. How do you prevent identity values from colliding on two servers? You must manage the identity ranges on your servers somehow to avoid duplicate identity values on the subscriber.

Collation is a combination of case-sensitivity and sort order used for character data. Earlier releases of SQL Server limited defining of collation to a particular server or database.

With SQL Server , you can define collation for each character column. Such freedom comes with the price of an administrative nightmare, however, if you have numerous character columns using different collations. As far as replication is concerned, published and subscribed tables must have the same collation for corresponding columns.

Having different collations on the publisher and subscriber might result in failure to replicate transactions. Furthermore, SELECT statements executed against the same table on the publisher and subscriber might return different data if tables have different collation.

Yet another consideration is whether triggers and constraints should be enforced on the subscribing servers. On the other hand, if you allow modifying data on subscribers, you might want to enforce data integrity through triggers.

Constraints check the existence of the related record prior to allowing the modification of a row in a table. However, depending on your replication scheme, the related table s might not be replicated. If your subscriber databases are used for read-only purposes, you might wish to drop triggers and constraints from subscribing databases altogether.

Be sure to examine your application carefully to ensure that your text and image data changes are being logged. In addition, be aware that although you can replicate columns with the TEXT data type, SQL Server has a limit of characters that will be replicated for such data. When you want to use updatable subscribers, you need to consider whether transactions need to be delivered back to the publisher immediately or whether some delay is acceptable. Typically, you should opt for queued updating if continuous network connectivity is not guaranteed.

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